Group 7: David C, Anjanett E, Victor G, and Cyle H

The Venus Project Report

Designing a new world culture

logo_download_image.jpg

Introduction

"I have no notions of a perfect society; I don't know what that means. I know we can do much better than what we've got, I'm no utopian, I'm not a humanist that would like to see everybody living in warmth and harmony: I know that if we don't live that way, we'll kill each other and destroy the Earth." Jaque Fresco

As the need for technology grows in the world, we turn towards science and machines to make the most important decisions. This is evidenced in present-day military operations. A need for politics will be eliminated as population relies more on machinery as a result of technological advances. Now, with the world on the cutting edge of technology, the rapidly growing need for a dynamic, groundbreaking, political, environment, economical, and technological revolution is upon us. The revolutionary behind such a project is Jacque Fresco, founder and director of the Venus Project (VP). According to Fresco, poverty, crime, corruption, and war are the direct result of scarcity created by the world's present-day profit and merit-based social systems. Created in 1975, the VP encompasses those four major integral areas to today’s society: politics, environment, technology, and economics.
In his personal essay, Fresco clearly outlines the impressive goals of his project, to name a few:

  1. Conserving all the world's resources as the common heritage of all of the Earth's people.
  2. Transcending all of the artificial boundaries that separate people.
  3. Evolving from a monetary-based economy to a resource-based world economy.
  4. Reclaiming and restoring the natural environment to the best of our ability.
  5. Redesigning our cities, transportation systems, agricultural and industrial plants so they are energy efficient, clean, and conveniently serve the needs of all people.
  6. Evolving towards a cybernetic society that can gradually outgrow the need for all political local, national, and supra-national governments as a means of social management.
  7. Eliminating any type of elitism, technical or otherwise.

What is The Venus Project


Factors

Environmental
Technological
Economical
Political


Environmental

'The single most important aspect of the project is the social direction of all nations working together on the restoration of the environment in a resources-based economy. The aim is the common heritage of all Earth's resources by all of the world's people. This we see as the only process to end the present cycle of events of war, poverty, hunger, political corruption, and environmental degradation. The technology that we present can make it possible for the global population to obtain a very high standard of living one higher than ever imagined possible.' Jacque Fresco

We know as a fact that Earth's ecosystems are vanishing rapidly; that our ice caps are melting as a result of global warming and inducing climate changes all over the world.
Additionally, population is always increasing which brings environmental problems such as pollution of rivers, and land. Some of those pollutants are bad Ozone that results from car emissions, and gasoline vapors, Particle Matter that cause health problems, Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen Oxides which are produced from cars, trucks and power plants that halt oxygen delivery to our vital organs. The UN-Habitat reported that the world's cities were responsible for about 70% of emissions; however, they occupy only 2% of the planet's land. Scientists also claim that by the year 2030 oil will be such a scarce resource that it will be impractical to extract it due to the cost.

The current economic industry is ruining our non-renewable resources, including top soil and the ozone layer. This situation is seriously jeopardizing earth's sustainability. Industrialized countries are the major contributors to pollution because they demand more water, natural resources, and energy. Additionally, they supply developing countries with technology, which becomes these problems recurrent.
The goal of the VP designers is to protect and return the earth to its original functioning condition. In order to accomplish this task, they say, anything we produce must be sourced with clean renewable energy. A long and lasting, sustainable, environment will be the result of the entire world's people efforts.

Presently, a 25-acre research center for the VP, Phase I, is being developed. Designs, proposals, and video composition for Phase II of the project are underway. The VP team contemplate building an initial city as the Phase III with all its proposed social, technological, political, and environmental implementations. This last implementation will be the most important in all the aspects, because it is directly related and aimed to safeguard the environment.

Water, A Vital Resource
The Secretary for the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) suggests, “As the world charts indicate a more sustainable future, the crucial interplay among water, food, and energy is one of the most formidable challenges we face. Without water, there is no dignity and no escape from poverty.” Water plays an important role in The VP as well. The VP contemplates building many cities in the sea to alleviate the population increase. Architects have also devised peninsula-like cities on land, surrounded with water, where aquatic diversity can be preserved in what is called “mariculture,” the task of growing diverse marine species, and harnessing marine currents to generate energy.

The project team has outlined a plan to comb and survey the area for land capable of being farmed productively. One of the methods used to achieve this will be to implant electronic probes in the soil. The probes will be used to weigh the land to its capacity. Where arable land does not exist, hydroponic methods of farming will be introduced to supply the local needs. Water that supplies those hydroponic devises will be obtained from huge desalinization floating plants at sea. Fish and sea farms will predominate on those areas.

Environmentally Friendly Lifestyles
Phase IV is projected to be a Theme Park, where every single aspect of the project can be explained to visitors. All the technological advances proposed for the VP will be illustrated therein. The park will demonstrate how the environment and rough sources of energy will be sustained. For example, the park staff may explain to a guest how solar energy is obtained with tiny pieces of silicon that power photovoltaic cells to convert sunlight into electricity.

The theme park would also demonstrate how biomass energy is obtained. Biomasses are non-fossil materials like water, trees, and land-based vegetation storing chemical energy. It is renewable energy contrary to fossil fuel energy (oil, coal and natural gas). From the EPA, we know, for instance, that 73 % of polluted air with Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is coming from power plants using fossil fuels, and 20% from other industry facilities.
biomass.png


Technological

"In my work, I am not attempting to predict the future. I am only pointing out what is possible with the intelligent application and humane use of science and technology." Jacque Fresco

Energy

energy3.jpg

In the process of creating a resource-based economy, we must consider the backbone of our society. Energy is what makes the world go round. We use energy for nearly everything in our lives, and this energy is slowly consuming our natural resources. In order to halt our consummation of the planet, we must consider alternate or “green” forms of energy that do not reduce our resources and can restore the balance of resources that we have offset during the previous centuries. Tapping into sources like solar energy, underwater currents, and geothermal energy, we can generate energy by harnessing the resources that are around us in a sustainable manner. Before we can explore the sort of technologies that the VP envisions for our future, we must explore stable energy sources that can power our future.

Solar energy
It has been estimated that our sun will continue to shine for another 7 billion years. In the recent decades, we have been harnessing solar power to generate currents large enough to sustain an entire household. We currently have different technologies that can absorb solar power and convert it into usable energy. Taking advantage of the nearly limitless power of the sun can prove to be beneficial to our generations to come and can sustain our growing need for energy. Integrating solar energy into every home will allow the flexibility of homes that are sustained independently of outside energy sources. Using and storing charges provided by solar panels built into every home, reduces the power consumption of cities to a power plant.

Geothermal energy
Another viable source of energy also comes from heat. Geothermal energy uses the heat from the earth to turn water into steam. The newly generated steam is used to drive electrical generators. This form of energy conversion is very sustainable, though it must be monitored to prevent local depletion. In previous decades, geothermal energy was tapped by using natural hot springs or aquifers. These geothermal sources run the risk of local depletion, as the water in these areas can be locally depleted by the process. Recent research has demonstrated that a system set up to re-inject water back into the source can prevent local depletion.
Advances in the geothermal industry have developed a procedure known as hot dry rock geothermal energy or enhanced geothermal systems. This manner of extraction is used where the ground is hot but is dry, or there is not an adequate water pressure. The rock is fractured with high pressure water, and in some cases with explosives. Water is circulated to the site, superheated naturally. Geothermal energy does produce some of the pollutants contributed to global warming, but these pollutants are generated in a very small quantity in comparison to fossil fuel.

Thermohaline circulation, Underwater Currents
A using underwater current, or thermohaline circulation, is another way to generate energy from a renewable source. Underwater currents are far more predictable than wind and solar power. Large turbines are turned by underwater currents, providing electrical power. Hydroelectric generation is the process of using the current to turn a generator, thus producing electric power. The water has to flow at a rate and force strong enough to turn the generator. This can be done naturally, in the case of deep underwater currents and rivers, or by the construction of a dam to control the pressure of the system. We currently use dams and rivers to generate hydroelectric power. Building a dam across the Bering Strait is a viable source of water capable of generating a vast about of electric power. Not only would a dam on the Bering Strait generate hydroelectric energy, but it would become a source for harnessing marine life, and controlling environmental factors, such as the melting of sea ice.

Cities

city3.jpg

The main consideration of the VP is efficient use of resources. Designing cities with efficiency in mind, project engineers crafted cities that are designed to allow for the best quality of life for each of the inhabitants. This is done in a resource-based economy, where no currency is exchanged. We currently design aesthetically pleasing buildings, using excessive resources, integrating features that do not offer functionality.

Designing homes with the end users and the environment in mind, can lead to some very beneficial changes in structure and technology. The VP envisions homes that have transparent walls, so that the occupants can enjoy the scenery and receive as much or as little light as they desire. Today, in Switzerland we can find one-way walls in public bathrooms whose opaqueness can be adjusted at the touch of a button. The new one-way walls in our future homes will block harmful rays, and trap necessary heat to maintain a stable and comfortable environment in the homes and buildings.

Transportation

trans4.jpg

The current design of our road system and transportation leaves room for car crashes and fatalities. Implementing a structure where automatic vehicle guided systems transport people to their desired destinations. Taking the guidance control away from the user severely decreases the possibility of a vehicle crash thus reducing traffic related fatalities. The atomatic vehicles would run on sustainable energy and would be provided free of charge to all individuals. The vehicles would be designed to self-monitor for maintenance, and would be able to transport itself to the maintenance facility. These vehicles could use wheels or magnetic levitation to achieve propulsion.

The construction of tunnels and bridges would allow high-speed maglev trains to transport individual’s trough long distance. Maglev trains use magnetic levitation for the lift and propulsion of the trains. The advance of aircraft technology would allow for a highly maneuverable vertical takeoff and landing crafts (VTOL). These crafts can employ the use of green energy and provide the speed and flexibility needed for flight transportation. Along with remarkable technological advancements, the VP ideology also redesigns present-day economics.


Economical

"War, poverty, corruption, hunger, misery, human suffering will not change in a monetary system. That is, there will be very little significant change. It's going to take the redesign of our culture and values." Jaque Fresco

The Venus Project is an organization and social movement created by Jacque Fresco in 1975 that promotes the idea of our world becoming a resource based economy. The name of the organization is derived from the 21 acre research center in Venus, Florida (The Venus Project). Members with like ideologies come to create movies and publications describing their proposed ideas and promoting the movement to achieve these ideas. The Zeitgeist Movement works alongside The Venus Project as a sort of strong arm in the activist portion of the organization (Currie).

According to the group, the world holds enough natural resources, and we as humans have enough technological capabilities, to rid ourself from a monetary based economy. The founder of this group states that we actually hold back from reaching our true potential by relying too much on money to fund everything from food to housing (Video: Are We Civilized Yet?). Since we cannot buy food or housing without money, we must work to gain money. This dependence on currency has led to both greed for more money, as well as poverty. In a resource based economy we would not work a full work week like we do now. All people would work to accomplish a similar goal (food, housing, etc.), thus eliminating a poverty line and increasing ties between people.

Economical Aspects
The Venus Project proposes an excellent set of ideas and goals. A more productive and healthy lifestyle for the human race would be a direct result from implementing these ideas. Coming together as a people to create a better world for us all is something that is both idealistic and challenging, no doubt. Numerous factors such as war, drugs, poverty, and greed stand in the way of these ideas. A few important topics should be addressed, with regard to the economical aspects of The Venus Project.

First, this organization is attempting to promote a resource based economy, as opposed to our current monetary based one. Many people have taken stabs at this idea with comments such as, “It is not feasible to get rid of money as a form of payment for goods or services,” and “The Earth alone does not hold enough natural resources for us to tap for our own benefit.” As to the first argument, it is actually very feasible to change our way of 'payment for goods or services.' Our current economy has seen challenging times within the past four years. It is in times like this that people look for alternative ideas and ways of thinking. One of the biggest concerns with citizens over the past few years is saving more money. Without this financial stress we could live our lives healthier and with more content. Also, the Earth holds an abundance of resources, many of which are being taken advantage of as this is being written. Over 70% of The Earth consists of water (while the majority is salt water we do have the ability to convert this to fresh water through technology we currently hold). There are numerous towns and cities which hold vast amounts of gardens and farms for food. The human race is more technologically advanced than ever with the capability of using this to our advantage in terms of implementing a stable, resource based economy (Richardson).

Second, the human life will be held with more regard and we will be able to live a more content life. Humans should help each other out and live a life of peace, while enjoying the Earth and what it has to offer. While to some this can sounds idealistic and out of reach, it is a very real possibility. Jobs that are currently being done by people will soon be replaced by machinery that we have created. As a direct result, there will be fewer jobs. The less jobs available, the less money that can be earned. Changing the incentive from money is one of the first steps in making this movement a reality.

Capitalism

As long as there is a motive for profit, there will be poverty. Our current system simply cannot afford to allow everyone to attain a decent salary and/or standard of living. It has been said that financial stress can be the worst of all stresses. Without this stress people could enjoy life as they were meant to.

Making it Happen
The Venus Project proposes many good ideas for the better of humans, as well as provides a 'map' for getting to that point. A lot of people have devoted their time and resources to this organization in an attempt for a better world.

A step in the right direction, according to Fresco, is to implement sensors through various parts of Earth, which would allow us to detect the most abundance locations for natural resources. Our current technology could complete this task with relative ease. Another concept Fresco proposes is eliminating scarcity. He says when a few nations control most of the available resources, there will always be scarcity (due to profit/greed). Scarcity of funds also hold back innovation and productivity of newer ideas. Creating a common way for all nations alike to share resources, such as food and technology, will allow for a smooth transition into a more productive way of life (Video: A Resource Based Economy).


Political

“True, without “real” democracy and the decisions being taken indirectly by big corporations, so called corpocrazy, the power ends up in the hands of the few and the people lose their ability to influence politics. The solution must be for the people to vote for a political movement for pure, real and direct democracy on demand.” Jacque Fresco//

The VP proposes an unparalleled social and political system in our history. This social and political ideology coincides directly with an economic strategy. Throughout the course of history, few leaders, or politicians, have ever made such a grand proposition to improve the lives of their citizens. Such a system is heavily dependent on the advancement of humans and technology. The VP’s almost Utopian ideology can be compared to Edward Bellamy’s, 1898 classic, Looking Backward.

A Common Bond
Social studies have long recounted, “Common crises creates common bonds.” While motivation to seek advancement in times of prosperity, times of disparity bring also people closer together. Then, with the demise of a common foe, people go back to their normal desire for individual advancement. For instance, there have been innumerable examples of the United Nations coming together to mobilize forces and to deter a common enemy, like during World War II. With the implementation of the VP, all nations would work together, cohesively, calling upon technology to sustain them. In this case, bankers, lawyers, businessmen, and politicians would be bypassed (“The Future and Beyond”).

flickr:5659205368

Throughout our history, politicians were brought on as actors on behalf of their citizens. Time and time again, these leaders seemed to act only to benefit themselves and their constituents, rather than the average person. Our history clearly illustrates that politicians and their political parties can be both fickle and short-lived due to their inability to satisfy the demands of their supporters. In modern industrial societies, the political process is the direct cause of inaction and dissent. The prime conditions for social change will only arise under two circumstances: intensely deteriorating climates in government, politics, and social institutions, and if self-imposed (“The Future by Design: Beyond Money and Politics in Viable Utopian Ideas: Shaping a better world”).

The solution to our problems will not come from the application of reason, politics, or logic. At present, Fresco implies that the world we live in is not reasonable or logical. The world’s antiquated social, political, and international order is no longer suitable for these times. They are such obsolete entities that cannot conceptualize or appreciate the significance of innovating technology to attain the greatest good for all people; moreover, to overcome the social and economic inequities.

If we apply the same efforts of interdisciplinary scientific mobilization to daily life, as we would during times of war, immense benefits can be achieved at a much faster rate. This coalition of scientists could eventually help define the parameters for the future of a sustainable global civilization.

A New World Order
Social operations today are far too complex for elected officials and politicians to comprehend, as two of the six goals of the VP concluded above.
According to Fresco:
“The human mind is far too simple to handle and put to practical use the voluminous information needed to operate a highly technical and advanced world society…Eventually the central cybernated systems will coordinate all of the machinery and equipment that serve the entire city, the nation and ultimately the world. One can think of it as an electronic automatic nervous system extending into all areas of the social complex” (“The Future and Beyond”).

flickr:5659205260

The VP would employ a cybernetic society in which computers could replace the outdated system of electing politicians that sustain and proliferate corporate vested interests. Cybernation is the networking of computers with automated systems. This new technological control center will not dictate or monitor individual's lives, as in The VP this would be considered socially offensive and counterproductive (“The Future by Design: Beyond Money and Politics in Viable Utopian Ideas: Shaping a better world”). Cybernation is essential in the VP’s design for this “new world order.” Only when cybernation is integrated into all aspects the new social design can technologically meet the needs of all the people, especially in times of crisis. No technologically advanced civilization can ever operate properly without the integration of cybernetics. This new technological center would therefore replace the current ineffective political system with an efficient computer-generated operation to satisfy the new world civilization (“The Future and Beyond”).

Many of the VP proposals, from an engineering standpoint, seem fanciful and inconceivable within the present monetary system;(“7 News Features: The Venus Project”). To bring such egalitarian ideas to work would require an absorbent sum of money. No government today could possible afford such an undertaking. The goals of the VP can only be accomplished in a resource-based world economy, where all of the world's resources are combined as a unified resource achieved by a world civilization (Arneson, "Egalitarianism").

The VP proposes political strategies that contrast drastically with today’s political system. Such an ideology is unparalleled in our history; yet, paramount to our survival. The VP advocates a complete withdrawal from our current political systems to implement a technologically advanced, cybernetic, egalitarian society to develop, sustain, and advance all peoples indigenous to its world civilization (Munteanu, “The Venus Project: Bombastic Dream or Realized Future?”).


Conclusion

"The Venus Project is a concept that could happen today but it is not up to me, it depends on what others do to help bring it about." Jacque Fresco

Venus+project+card+033.jpg

Are You Inspired?
In these times of social and political revolution, people around the world are embracing bold new ways of life. The increasingly dynamic need for change is becoming more and more evident. In such times, new ideologies are embraced, not just new governing officials and political views. In times like these the Venus Project could provide a positive, alternative existence. This project takes vast strides to improve the current political, environmental, technological, and economical aspects. As a result of the Venus Project, many have been inspired to champion a completely new way of life.


Works Cited

Fresco, Jacque. "Aims and Proposals." The Venus Project. 2009. Web.
2009.<http://www.thevenusproject.com/en/the-venus-project-introduction/aims-proposals>

Fresco, Jacque. "Introduction." The Venus Project. 2009. Web.
2009.<http://www.thevenusproject.com/en/the-venus-project-introduction/about>

Fresco, Jacque. " What is the Venus Project." The Venus Project. FAQ. 2009
2009.<http://www.thevenusproject.com/en/the-venus-project-introduction/faq>

Fresco, Jacque."What is the single most important aspect of the project." The Venus Project. 2009. faq. 11. Web
2009.<http://www.thevenusproject.com/en/the-venus-project-introduction/faq>

Fresco, Jacque. "What is the first steps taken toward within global resource based economy." The Venus Project. 2009. faq. 12. Web
2009.<http://www.thevenusproject.com/en/the-venus-project-introduction/faq>

Habjanec, Davor. "Fossil fuel facts." Interesting Fossil Fuel Facts 27 September 2009. Web. 10
April.2011.<http://interestingenergyfacts.blogspot.com/2009/09/fossil-fuels-facts.html>

United States Environmental Protection Agency. EPA. Learn the Issues. United States EPA.,2011. Web.12
April.2011.<http://www.epa.gov/epahome/learn.htm>.

Socrates Comenius 1 School Project. "Our way to save the Planet." Europe-project-W5presentation.pdf
The project in N. Irland.

Kinver, Mark. "Dr Clos, UN report: Cities ignore climate change at their peril." News Science & Environment. BBC. 29 March 2011. Web. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-12881779>

Gore, Al. "Al Gore's new thinking on the climate crisis." TED ideas worth spreading. Ted2008. Filmed March 2008. Web. Posted April 2008. <http://www.ted.com/talks/al_gore_s_new_thinking_on_the_climate_crisis.html>

UN United Nations. DESA Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Responding to the urban water challenge. New York: Department of Economic and Social Affairs.,March 2011. Web.
April 2011<http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/news/sustainable/water-challenge.html>

EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency. "What Are the Six Common Air Pollutants?." Web.
April 2011.<http://www.epa.gov/airquality/urbanair/>

7 News Features: The Venus Project. Dir. Danny Cohen. Web. 14 February 2011.
Sunbeam Television Corp., 2011.<http://www.wsvn.com/features/articles/specialreport/MI114870/>

Arneson, Richard, "Egalitarianism", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring
2009 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.) Web. 13 Feb. 2011.<http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2009/entries/egalitarianism/>.

Fresco, Jacque. “The Future and Beyond.” Web. 13 Feb. 2011. The Venus Project,
2009. <http://www.thevenusproject.com/a-new-social-design/essay>

Munteanu, Nina.”The Venus Project: Bombastic Dream or Realized Future?.” The Alien
Next Door. 14 March 2009. Google, 2011. Web. 13 Feb. 2011.
<http://internationalbusiness.wikia.com/wiki/How_Chinese_Nonverbal_Communication_Can_Affect_An_International_Business_Setting>

The Venus Project: Beyond Politics, Poverty, and War. Web. 12 Feb. 2011. The Venus
Project, 2009. <http://thevenusproject.com/>

http://www.toxel.com/tech/2009/05/27/transparent-public-toilets-from-switzerland/
http://www.ee.bgu.ac.il/~ivanier/publications/2008/Evaluation%20of%20automatic%20guided%20vehicle%20systems.pdf
http://www.wikimheda.org/wiki/Automatic_guided_vehicle_system
http://www.advantech.com.tw/eAutomation/Data-Acquisition-Control/applications.aspx?doc_id={BF2DB1B4-D021-4779-99DE-5C1971A3C71
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maglev_(transport)

Currie, Chard. (2010). The Venus Project and the Zeitgeist Movement [Online Forum]. Retrieved from http://www.thescavenger.net/media-a-technology/the-venus-project-and- the-zeitgeist-movement-8970.html

Part 1 [Video]. (2010, November 15). The Venus Project: A Resource Based Economy. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vj61bEIGcJ0

Richardson, Scott. (2009). The Venus Project. Retrieved from
http://www.thevenusproject.com/en/the-venus-project-introduction/about

The Venus Project. (2011). Wikipedia. Retrieved February 25, 2011, from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Venus_Project

[Video]. (2010, November 14). Jacque Fresco: Are We Civilized Yet? Retrieved from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZK1TvwGhMGY&feature=related

Currie, Chard. (2010). The Venus Project and the Zeitgeist Movement [Online Forum]. Retrieved from http://www.thescavenger.net/media-a-technology/the-venus- project-and- the-zeitgeist-movement-8970.html

Part 1 [Video]. (2010, November 15). The Venus Project: A Resource Based Economy. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vj61bEIGcJ0

Richardson, Scott. (2009). The Venus Project. Retrieved from
http://www.thevenusproject.com/en/the-venus-project-introduction/about

The Venus Project. (2011). Wikipedia. Retrieved February 25, 2011, from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Venus_Project

[Video]. (2010, November 14). Jacque Fresco: Are We Civilized Yet? Retrieved from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZK1TvwGhMGY&feature=related

7 News Features: The Venus Project. Dir. Danny Cohen. Web. 14 February 2011.
Sunbeam Television Corp., 2011.
http://www.wsvn.com/features/articles/specialreport/MI114870/>

Arneson, Richard, "Egalitarianism", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring
2009 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.) Web. 13 Feb. 2011.
<http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2009/entries/egalitarianism/>.

Fresco, Jacque. “The Future and Beyond.” Web. 13 Feb. 2011. The Venus Project,
2009. <http://www.thevenusproject.com/a-new-social-design/essay>

Munteanu, Nina.”The Venus Project: Bombastic Dream or Realized Future?.” The Alien
Next Door. 14 March 2009. Google, 2011. Web. 13 Feb. 2011.
<http://internationalbusiness.wikia.com/wiki/How_Chinese_Nonverbal_Communication_Can_Affect_An_International_Business_Setting>

The Venus Project: Beyond Politics, Poverty, and War. Web. 12 Feb. 2011. The Venus
Project, 2009. <http://thevenusproject.com/>


Return to ENC 3241 Student Articles Menu