Chapter 6 Production Returning Home

CHAPTER 6

The chapter introduces production in writing, which is the process of making a document ready for release whether that release is in the form of a manual, brochure, or a book. It will undergo some form of production. This chapter will go over ranging from brief history of printers both manual and electronic printers, materials, cost of production and binding styles and fonts. The chapter includes pictures and tables to better explain the finer points of production.

HISTORY OF PRINTING

Printing can be traced back to the earliest civilizations about 3000 BC with the first human attempts to duplicate images. For the purpose of this guide printing will be examined back to more recent printing methods and techniques will be briefly introduced.

WOODBLOCK PRINTING

Originating in China, woodblock printing is a technique for printing text and patterns on textile and paper used in Asia in antiquity. Woodblock printing was also used in ancient Egypt to 4th century.
Ukiyo-e is a type of Japanese woodblock art printing. In Europe the technique was called woodcut or block-books mainly used in 15th century.

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FIGURE 6.1 WOODBLOCK PRINTING EXAMPLE FROM RIGHTREADING

MOVABLE TYPE PRINTING

Invented in China around 1040 AD, movable type printing is a topographic and printing technique that uses movable ceramic or metal tablet elements to print a document.

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FIGURE 6.2 MOVABLE TYPE FROM BCPS

PRINTING PRESS

1450 Johannes Gutenberg made his first printing press. That press is known as an independent invention of movable type in Europe. Gutenberg created the press using type pieces from an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony, those same components remain used in printing press today. Today all movable type printing presses are derived from Gutenberg’s printing press.

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FIGURE 6.3 GUTENBERG’S PRINTING PRESS FROM PUMACHAUSSURES

**Gutenberg's Printing Press Video**

The printing press is a device that applies pressure to a surface that has been inked onto printing media like paper, thus transferring the ink.

LITHOGRAPHY

Lithography (from gr. lithos ‘stone’, graphein ‘to write’) is a printing method that utilizes a stone (lithographic limestone) or a metal plate with a smooth surface.
Invented in 1796 by the German actor and playwright Johann Alois Senefelder as a way to publish his playwright works, lithography is used to print text and artwork on a printing medium.

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FIGURE 6.4 LITHOGRAPHIC PRINTER FROM RATCLIFFUK

LASER PRINTER

The laser printer is a type of computer printer that fabricates on paper text and graphics fast and with high quality.
Laser printers utilize xerographic printing technique that produces images through directly scanning of a laser beam across the photoreceptor of the printer.

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FIGURE 6.5 LASER PRINTER FROM WOODLASERENGRAVER

THERMAL PRINTER

The thermal printer produces images by heating thermal paper at the time that the paper passes over the thermal print head thus the coating becomes black on the heated areas, which produces text or image.

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FIGURE 6.6 THERMAL PRINTER FROM PRLOG

**link: Modern Newspaper Printing Process Video**

BRIEF HISTORY OF PRINTERS

The first high speed printer by Remington-Rand produced in 1953 would only work on the Univac computer. Four years later came the first dot matrix printer from IBM. While the original laser printer, named EARS started development in 1969 and was completed in 1971. A man named Gary Starkweather was a major contributor to the laser printer project by adding a laser beam to a dry printing process called electrophotography that Chester Carlson invented in 1938.

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FIGURE 6.7: OXIDATA ML320 PRINTER FROM SOFTPEDIA

Then came the inkjet printers, which first started appearing in 1976 but did not become a consumer item until 1988, due to some challenges that the researchers had to finish fixing before it was ready for the common household. Although being ready for the everyday household did not mean it was affordable. One of the first models developed by Hewlett Packard to hit the market was priced at $1,000.

The continuous inkjet printers, another style of printer that did not catch on were developed by IBM, mostly because of its wasteful use of ink. It would electrically charged drops of ink so that it would quickly cover the page.

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FIGURE 6.8: APPLE STYLEWRITER PRINTER FROM SOFTPEDIA

PREPARING THE DOCUMENT

Preparing the document for publication is an important aspect of production whether it be publication by printing the document or even just posting it online, either way there are a few things a person needs to remember to do first. The most important one would be to proofread the document and check for spelling and grammar errors along with any other errors that may break the rules that one is following as a style sheet. Like double checking if all the headings are the same size with the same font or if one is using the same voice throughout the whole document.

There are three important steps in preparing a document for publication. They are revision, editing and proofreading. All of which are slightly similar in nature but with very different methods of achieving their similar goals.

First is revision, this is when the author adds, removes or somehow change the overall document to better accomplish what they want the document to accomplish. In other words, to improve the document with the goal of making it better. Quite often the other two steps are considered parts of revision because their goals are also to improve the document as a whole. One common form of revision is adding new topics to the document or changing up how other topics are worded to better get the point across.

Editing is another important step in the process of preparing a document for publication because if a document has a lot of spelling and grammatical errors then it makes the document hard to read and distracts the readers from what the document actually says. Basically editing is going back over the document to find and fix things like grammar errors, spelling errors, and even just keeping things consistent. For example, the author would want to represent numbers the same way throughout the whole document or it will seem unprofessional.

Proofreading is the third step in preparing a document for publication and is very similar to editing where the main goal of it is to fix errors. Such as using their instead of using there, or errors in how a paragraph is setup. Fixing it so that when read, it will convey the message that the author intended.

After the document has been thoroughly checked, probably multiple times, then it is ready to be published or at least as ready as one can possibly make it.

FONTS

Serifs in typography are the semi-structural details, finishing strokes or short lines on the ends of some of the strokes that are used for the frames of the letters and other typographical symbols. A typeface without serifs is called sans-serif.

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FIGURE 6.9: SERIF VERSUS SANS SERIF FONTS FROM THETHINKINGBLOG

**Typeface Image Link**

Making the decision what typeface to be used in a document takes a lot of consideration and research, but for a general rule of thumb is accepted that the body of printed documents is written in serif fonts, whereas the headings are equally accepted to be in serif and in sans serif fonts.
Studies have been done on readability of serif versus sans serif typefaces, and those studies support the idea that serif fonts are more readable in printed documents.

BINDING STYLES

The binding is what makes a book more than just a stack of pages. It is an important part of making a book. There are multiple different styles each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Before deciding on what type of binding to use one needs to first figure out what they desire for their book to accomplish. Because each style has better uses for different things, so if one does not have a firm idea of what the use of the book will be they would be at a loss for deciding which style is best suited for their book. Here are some of the more popular and commonly used ones.

COIL

Coil, also known as spiral coil, is done by punching multiple holes down the binding edge, and inserting a single, either plastic or metal spiral wire through the holes. Makers and publishers of notebooks, cookbooks, and steno pads use this type of binding most often because it is more beneficial for those purposes.

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FIGURE 6.10: COIL FROM PRESENTATIONS DIRECT, LLC.

PLASTIC COMB

Plastic Comb style is the most conventional and affordable binding style. The process involves placing rectangular shaped holes down the length of the binding edge. Then taking a piece of plastic, in which each loop is connect to a longer piece of plastic, and fitting it into the holes. It also has the added advantage of being easily editable. But the down side to being editable is that it can come apart a bit easier.

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FIGURE 6.11: PLASTIC COMB FROM PRESENTATIONS DIRECT, LLC.

TAPE

The tape binding acts as a more permanent solution, it uses a thermoplastic adhesive on a strip placed on the spine of the book to bind the pages together. Due to this it does not require any holes to be punched in the pages which allows for a smaller margin next to the binding edge. Offices usually use tape binding for their documents along with students who use it to make their reports more professional.

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FIGURE 6.12: TAPE FROM PRESENTATIONS DIRECT, LLC.

Below is a video made by a company that does binding for customers, in it they mention some of the bindings that were talked about above. But shows them with a better visual picture and again points out some of the advantages of the different styles.

OTHER BINDING STYLES

Listed below are some more binding styles that are not as commonly used as the previously mentioned ones but still important enough to at least briefly mention. Only four others are worth taking note of even if three of them are just a different variation of Plastic Comb. They are as follows:

• ProClick
• Wire
• Strip
• ZipBind

ProClick, Wire and ZipBind are all a mix between Coil and Plastic Comb with small usage differences between themselves. Some differences are that Wire is permanent while ProClick and ZipBind can be reopened and have its contents changed around. Another difference is that ZipBind does not have the ability to have its pages go 360 degrees around the binding, while ProClick and Wire does. Strip is like the Tape but has additional teeth like prods that go through the pages for an extra secure binding.

MATERIALS AND MEDIA

When producing a technical document, there are many different materials involved and types of media that can be used. Each style of media has a different purpose and should be chosen wisely for the type of document that is being produced. Table 6.1 is comprised of different types of media that are commonly used, and the types of material that work best with it.

BROCHURES A trifold paper is most effective with brochures and helps compact information in a small space.
MANUALS Coil, 3-ring binding keeps books and manuals together nicely and makes them easily accessible
FLYERS Colored paper or Standard white is most cost effective with flyers
PRESENTATIONS Coil binding with single sided printing and tabs makes presentation documents most usable
BUSINESS CARDS These marketing tools does well on 2 x 3.5” paper
Ivory paper: provides great long lasting quality without the use of additional coating
Handmade paper: Expensive paper that gives an exclusive look to a card.
Untearable paper: Waterproof paper that is most often preferred for durability
Art Paper: Normal paper that can be given a matte or glossy finish. This works well when a photo image is being placed on a card
TABLE 6.1 INFORMATION FROM PRINTCENTRIC

COSTS OF PRODUCTION

Once a document is finished there are many options to be considered when turning that document into such things as manuals, flyers, brochures, and presentations. At printing stores such as Kinko’s there are different options to choose from for each media and a price set on each. The more complicated and aesthetically pleasing a production is, the more expensive it will be. Table 6.2 shows common types of media that are used and the cost of production for each of them.

Manuals

Signature
picture from fedex

Color printing
3-ring binder
Double sided
Laser Signature White (32 lb)
Cover page and spine on cardstock paper
5 tabs
Starts at $10.84

Standard
B&W printing, Double sided
Black coil binding
Laser Standard White (24 lb)
Black vinyl back
Cardstock cover page with color printing
5 Tabs
Starts at $7.44

Saver
B&W printing
Black comb binding
Double sided
Standard White (20 lb)
Black vinyl back
Clear cover
Starts at $3.49
Brochures

picture from fedex
Signature
printing
Double sided
Laser Signature White (32 lb)
Includes folding
Starts at $1.03

Standard
B&W printing
Double sided
Choice of color paper
Includes folding
Starts at $0.19

Saver
B&W printing
Double sided
Standard White (20 lb)
Includes folding
Starts at $0.16

Presentations

picture from fedex

Signature
Color printing
Black coil binding
Laser Signature White (32 lb)
Single Sided
Frosted cover
Black vinyl back
5 tabs
Starts at $8.99

Standard
Color printing
Black coil binding
Laser Standard White (24 lb)
Single sided
Clear cover
Black vinyl back
Starts at $6.74

Saver
B&W printing
Stapled
Laser Standard White (24 lb)
Single Sided
Starts at $0.55

TABLE 6.2 TABLE INFORMATION FROM FEDEX

In some cases it may be appropriate to publish documents online instead of producing hard copies. There are many hosting sites that can facilitate a website to view a production. For fewer than seven dollars a month a production can be hosted on the web and the hassle of paying for and using materials is eliminated. Table 6.3 lists a few hosts that have competitive prices and offer similar services. When considering publishing a document online, there is much to consider. Such things as is this document better as a hard copy? By publishing online, will the document reach the target audience? Publishing online can be the right decision for the production or can be the wrong decision. Below is a list of advantages and disadvantages to publishing a document online.

Advantages of publishing documents online
• The information can be viewed by anyone, anywhere at anytime
• Flipping through several pages is not necessary
• Information can be updated easily
• A hard copy of the document isn’t needed
• Information is easy to gather and print

Disadvantages of publishing documents online
• Information on websites are often seen as not reliable
• The site can go down and make the information not accessible
• A connection to the internet is necessary to see the document. This can cause an issue if a connection is not available and the document needs to be seen.
• Reaching the target audience may be difficult

HOST PRICE
JUST HOST $5.95/MO. FOR 24 MONTHS $6.95/MO. FOR 12 MONTHS
IPAGE $4.25/MO. FOR 24 MONTHS $4.50/MO. FOR 12 MONTHS
FAT COW $4.67/MO. FOR 24 MONTHS $4.67/MO. FOR 12 MONTHS
TABLE 6.3 TABLE INFORMATION FROM TOP10WEBHOSTING

WHAT WE LEARNED

The history of printing dates back from woodblock printing to current technologies such as thermal printing. The production of literature is something that has been very important for many years. When making a document ready for publication there is a lot to be considered. When producing a document deciding on things such as binding styles and the materials used is critical. Each style and material serves a purpose for certain target audience. When looking closer at the document itself, things such as fonts must be taken into consideration. Certain fonts are more readable in documents than others and can make or break the production. In this chapter many different aspects of production are explained. The history of the printing press, cost of production, different binding styles and materials are all explained in detail.

REFERENCES

“Gutenberg and the Koreans”. Rightreading. Web. 28 Feb. 2011.
<http://www.rightreading.com/printing/gutenberg.asia/gutenberg-asia-6-china-blockbook.htm>.

“Printing Press Invention”. Pumachaussures. Web. 28 Feb. 2011.
<http://pumachaussures.net/wfs/printing%20press%20invention.html>.

“Song(Sung ) Dynasty.” Baltimore County Public Schools. Web. 28 Feb. 2011
<http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/chinahist/song.html>.
“Coil Coating Equipment.” Ratcliffuk. Web. 28 Feb.
<http://www.ratcliffuk.com/coil.html>.

“Laser Engraver and Laser Printer.” Woodlaserengraver. Web.28 Feb.
<http://www.woodlaserengraver.com/2011/02/18/laser-print-2/>.

“Thermal Printers.” Prlog. Web. 28 Feb.
<http://www.prlog.org/10035085-bluestar-distributes-zebra-series-zm400-zm600-thermal-printers.html>.

“Dharma Records.” Rhotodharma. Web. 28 Feb.
<http://records.photodharma.net/documentary/buddhist-woodblock-printing-in-china>.

“The History of Printing and Printing Processes.” Inventors. Web. 28 Feb.
<http://inventors.about.com/od/pstartinventions/a/printing.htm>

“Manuscripts, Books, and Maps: The Printing Press and a Changing World .” UCSD Department of Communication. Web. 28 Feb.
<http://communication.ucsd.edu/bjones/Books/booktext.html>.

“The Development of Print Technology.” UCSD Department of Communication. Web. 28 Feb.
<http://communication.ucsd.edu/bjones/Books/printech.html>.

"Binding Styles Guide." Presentations Direct. Web. 28 Feb. 2011. <http://www.presentationsdirect.com/binding-style-comparison.html>.

"Binding Styles." Hignell Book Printing. Web. 28 Feb. 2011. <http://www.hignell.mb.ca/printingclarified/printing101/binding-styles>.

"History of Computer Printers." Softpedia. Web. 28 Feb. 2011. <http://gadgets.softpedia.com/news/History-of-Computer-Printers-032-01.html>.

“What are the different Business Card Papers Available” Print Centric Web. 1 March. 2011. <http://www.printcentric.com/businesscardpapers.html>.

“How To Mix Fonts: Typeface Cheat Sheet”. Thethinkingblog. Web.28 Feb.
<http://www.thethinkingblog.com/2007/08/how-to-mix-fonts-typeface-
cheat-sheet.html>.

“Glossary”. Fonts. Web.28 Feb.
<http://www.fonts.com/AboutFonts/Glossary/_glossary_S.htm>.

“Serif”. Wikipedia. Web.28 Feb.
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serif>.

“Research”. The University of North Carolina. Web.28 Feb.
<http://www.unc.edu/~jkullama/inls181/final/serif.html>.

“Bibliography”.The University of North Carolina. Web.28 Feb.
<http://www.unc.edu/~jkullama/inls181/final/bibliography.html#Arditi>.

Student Writers

Cory M., Jonathan R., Nataliya S.